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Amphibians

African Bullfrog

They are sexually dimorphic with the males being olive colored with yellow/orange throat sacs while females are olive/brown with white throat sacs. Both male and female bullfrogs have ridges along their back. They also have metatarsal tubercles on their hind feet which are used for digging. Males are larger than females. They can live up to 16 years in captivity.

Habitat/Range:

They occupy much of the land of sub-Saharan Africa and are some of the most adaptable frogs. They survive in areas that are dry for years, high elevation, and extreme heat and cold.

Size:

Length: 9in. Weight: 2lbs.

Their bottom jaw has three odontodes which act as teeth to restrain their prey.

Least Concern. No legal status has been made. These frogs are threatened by harvesting for consumption and urbanization.

Conservation Action:

They occur in many protected areas. In areas that the species is non-native, it is considered a pest and is either controlled or eradicated.

Oriental Fire-Bellied Toad

Oriental fire-bellied toads can range in color from brownish-gray to bright green above, and red-orange to yellow below. The undersides are covered with dark spots and the back may also exhibit dark markings. The back of these toads are covered in tubercles (warts) that are very pronounced and may feel sharp. Their eyes show triangular pupils. Females are usually larger than males.

Range/Habitat:

Oriental fire-bellied toads can be found in northeast China, Korea, Thailand, southern Japan and southeast Russia. They can live in a variety of habitats including forests, river valleys, swampy bushlands, and open meadows. They will live in near a body of water.

Size:

Length: 1.4-3.2in.

  • When threatened, these toads will flip onto their backs and arch their backs. This shows off their brilliantly colored belly, warning predators that they are poisonous to eat. This posture is known as unkenreflex.
  • In cases of extreme danger, oriental fire-bellied toads can excrete so much poison that their entire body becomes covered in a soapy foam.
  • These toads are actually frogs.

IUCN lists as a species of least concern. It is listed on the Red Data Book of Khabarovskii Region, Russia, which is like their endangered species list. They are threatened by habitat loss, and are collected in Russia for sale to China to be used in medicine. This species is popular in the pet-trade.

Conservation Action:

They are present in a number of protected areas.

Poison Dart Frogs

(Dyeing, Green and Black, Yellow-Headed)

Dendrobatids, also known as poison frogs or dart-poison frogs, are the most brightly colored of any anuran (frog) group. They can be blue, red, green, yellow, black, etc with a variety of patterns. This coloration is known as “aposematic” or warning coloration. Most species are small in size.

Range/Habitat:

This family of frogs range from Nicaragua to Brazil with the majority living in northwestern South America. They inhabit, moist, tropical rainforest.

Behavior:

Almost all dendrobatids are most active in the day time. The majority of them are terrestrial (land dwelling) but some do reside in the trees. Due to their diurnal habits and aposematic coloration, these
frogs are often able to live in groups with little risk of predation. They exhibit complex forms of sociality, territoriality and courtship.

  • Poison frog skin contains an alkaloid based toxin that can kill or paralyze a predator.
  • The name dart-poison frog is derived from a practice of the Indians of the Ember Choco in Colombia, in which they rub their blowgun darts onto the backs of golden poison frogs to load the darts with poison.

These species are listed by IUCN as anywhere from least concern to endangered. Many species are threatened by habitat destruction and disease. Bd chytrid fungus threatens numerous amphibian species by hardening the keratin in their skin and making them unable to breathe. This fungus has spread to many countries throughout the world and threatening many species with extinction. Several species of poison frogs are popular in the pet trade.

Conservation Action:

Some species occur in protected areas and/or are forbidden from collection.

White's Tree Frog

They are light green to emerald green in color with white or gold spots on their sides. They have vomerine teeth (roof of their mouth) which aid in digestion by holding the prey in place as they swallow it whole. The have horizontal pupils unlike most other tree frogs. They also have a fatty ridge over their eye which is distinct among this species. This ridge is covered with a thick cuticle which helps them retain moisture. Females are larger than males.

Habitat/Range:

This tree frog is found in Australia and southern New Guinea. They like moist forest habitats but have adapted so that they can live in drier conditions as well.

Size:

ength: 3-4.5in.

  • The female can deposit her eggs with such vigor that they can land half a meter away.
  • They can control how much water evaporation occurs through their skin and in this way they can regulate their temperature.

Least Concern. These frogs are common in their natural range. However, the chytrid fungus, habitat loss, pollution, and the pet trade are harming natural populations.

Conservation Actions:

They occur in several protected areas throughout their range. In Australia, restrictions have been placed on the pet industry and some zoos are breeding them in captivity.

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